Russian Language [RUSS]
UNU1101-UN1102. First-Year Russian, I and II 5 pts. Staff
Grammar, reading, composition, and conversation.
UN1101-UN1102. First-Year Russian, I and II 5 pts. Staff
"Off-sequence." Grammar, reading, composition, and conversation.
UN2101-UN2102. Second-Year Russian, I and II 5 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: RUSS UN1102 or the equivalent. Drill practice in small groups. Reading, composition, and grammar review.
UN2102-UN2101. Second-Year Russian, I and II 5 pts. Staff
"Off-sequence" Prerequisite: RUSS UN1102 or the equivalent. Drill practice in small groups. Reading, composition, and grammar review.
UN3010. Russian Grammar Review 1 pt. F. Miller
Prerequisites: must be enrolled in either UN3339 or UN3340. Optional grammar review for native speakers of Russian.
UN3101-UN3102. Third-Year Russian, I and II 4 pts.
Enrollment limited. Prerequisites: two years of college Russian or instructor's permission. Recommended for students who wish to improve their active command of Russian. Emphasis on conversation and composition. Reading and discussion of selected texts and video tapes. Lectures. Papers and oral reports required. Conducted entirely in Russian.
UN3421. Russian Phonetics and Intonation 2 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: three years of college Russian instructor's permission. Review of principles of phonetics and intonation for advanced students. Intensive drill for the development of correct speech habits. Attention to expressive reading and poetry recitation. Conducted entirely in Russian.
UN3430-UN3431. Russian For Heritage Speakers 3 pts. A. Smyslova
Review of Russian grammar and development of reading and writing skills for students with a knowledge of spoken Russian. RUSS UN3430 AND RUSS UN3431, TAKEN TOGETHER, MEET A TWO YEAR FOREIGN LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT.
UN4342-UN4343. Fourth-Year Russian, I and II 4 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: three years of college Russian and instructor's permission. Enrollment limited. Either term may be taken separately. UN3443: systematic study of problems in Russian syntax; written exercises, translations into Russian, and composition. UN3444: discussion of different styles and levels of language, including word usage and idiomatic expression; written exercises, analysis of texts, and compositions. Conducted entirely in Russian.
GU4432. Contrastive Phonetics and Grammar of Russian and English. 4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: four years of college Russian. Comparative phonetic, intonational, and morphological structures of Russian and English, with special attention to typical problems for American speakers of Russian.
GU4433. Specific Problems in Mastering Russian 4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: four years of college Russian. The Russian verb (basic stem system, aspect, locomotion); prefixes; temporal, spatial, and causal relationships; word order; word formation.
GU4434. Practical Stylistics. 3 pts. I. Reyfman
Prerequisite: four years of college Russian or instructor's permission. The course will focus on theoretical matters of language and style and on the practical aspect of improving students' writing skills. Theoretical aspects of Russian style and specific Russian stylistic conventions will be combined with the analysis of student papers and translation assignments, as well as exercises focusing on reviewing certain specific difficulties in mastering written Russian.
GU4350-GU4351. Moving To Advanced-Plus and Beyond: Russian Language, Culture, and Society 3 pts. A. Smyslova
The course is designed to provide advanced and highly-motivated undergraduate and graduate students of various majors with an opportunity to develop professional vocabulary and discourse devices that will help them to discuss their professional fields in Russian with fluency and accuracy. The course targets all four language competencies: speaking, listening, reading, and writing, as well as cultural understanding. Conducted in Russian.
GU4910. Literary Translation 3 pts. R. Meyer
Prerequisite: four years of college Russian. A workshop in literary translation from Russian into English focusing on the practical problems of the craft. Students spend the bulk of the semester working on the translation of a literary text and discussing their work in class.
Russian Literature and Culture in Translation [RUSS]
UN3220. Literature and Empire: The Reign of the Novel in Russia. 3 pts. C. Popkin
Formerly "Nineteenth-Century Prose." Explores the aesthetic and formal developments in Russian prose -- especially the rise of the monumental nineteenth-century novel -- as one manifestation of a complex array of national and cultural aspirations, humanistic and imperialist ones alike. Works by Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and Chekhov. Knowledge of Russian is not required.
UN3221. Literature and Revolution: A Century of Russian Modernisms. 3 pts. J. Merrill
Course on Russian literature, film, and culture of the revolutionary period. Topics of study include: poetic theory and practice, abstract art, film and montage theory, cultural politics, science fiction, the socialist realist novel, and the fantastic. The syllabus includes works by: Akhmatova, Bely, Blok, Bogdanov, Bulgakov, Eisenstein, Goncharova, Kataev, Khlebnikov, Kollontai, Kuleshov, Lenin, Mayakovsky, Nabokov, Rodchenko, Shklovsky, Siniavsky, Trotsky, Tsvetaeva, Zamiatin.
UN3222. Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. 3 pts. L. Knapp
Knowledge of Russian is not required. Analysis of the major works of the two writers.
UN3223. Magical Mystery Tour: The Legacy of Old Rus'. 3 pts. V. Izmirilieva
Winston Churchill famously defined Russia as "a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." This course aims at demystifying Russia by focusing on the core of its "otherness" in the eyes of the West: its religious culture. We will explore an array of texts, practices and pragmatic sites of Russian religious life across such traditional divides as medieval and modern, popular and elite, orthodox and heretical. Icons, liturgical rituals, illuminated manuscripts, magic amulets, religious sects, feasting and fasting, traveling practices from pilgrimages to tourism, politcial myths and literary mystification, decadent projects of life-creation, and fervent anticipation of the End are all part of the tour that is as illuminating as it is fun. No knowledge of Russian required.
GU4006. Russian Religious Thought, Praxis, and Literature. 3 points. L. Knapp
This course examines the interaction of religious thought, praxis, and literature in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. As the Russian Empire sought to define it place in the world, many Russian writers and thinkers turned to religious experience as a source of meaning. A varied body of work emerged as they responded to the tradition of Russian Orthodoxy. The goals of this course are to acquaint students with key texts of Russian religious thought and to give students the knowledge and tools required for critical inquiry into the religious dimension of Russian literature and culture.
RUSS GU4013x. Late Tolstoy (Beyond Anna Karenina): Thinker, Writer, Activist, Pacifist, Critic, Evangelist, Prophet, Humanitarian, and Mortal. 3pts. L. Knapp.
Late Tolstoy (beyond Anna Karenina): Thinker, Writer, Activist, Pacifist, Critic, Evangelist, Prophet, Humanitarian, Mortal. The focus of the course is Tolstoy’s work in the last thirty-five years of his life. On finishing War and Peace and Anna Karenina, Tolstoy swore off the kind of literature and decided to devote himself to what he believed would be more meaningful work. This work included confessions, letters, tracts, critiques, proclamations, invectives, exposés, meditations, and gospels, as well as more fiction, some of which is overtly didactic and some of which is, like his earlier fiction, more covertly so. In his late work, Tolstoy carries on with familiar subject matter as he asks how to love others in the face of death, as he rails against violence and coercion, as he preaches civil disobedience and nonresistance, as he exposes systemic injustice, as he seeks faith, and as he continues to ask “Must it be so?” and “What then must we do?” We will read his novel Resurrection, novellas and short stories, including “Hadji Murat,” “Death of Ivan Illych,” “The Kreutzer Sonata,” “The Devil,” “After the Ball,” stories “for the people,” and works of non-fiction, including Confession, Gospel in Brief, The Kingdom of God Is Within You, What Is Art?, and treatises on vegetarianism, social inequity, capital punishment, temperance, and war and peace.
GU4017. Chekhov. 3 pts. C. Popkin
Close reading of Chekhov's best work in the genres on which he left an indelible mark (the short story and the drama) on the subjects that left an indelible imprint on him (medical science, the human body, identity, topography, the nature of news, the problem of knowledge, the access to pain, the necessity of dying, the structure of time, the self and the world, the part and the whole) via the modes of inquiry (diagnosis and deposition, expedition and exegesis, library and laboratory, microscopy and materialism, intimacy and invasion) and forms of documentation (the itinerary, the map, the calendar, the photograph, the icon, the Gospel, the Koran, the lie, the love letter, the case history, the obituary, the pseudonym, the script) that marked his era ( and ours). No knowledge of Russian required.
GU4039. Literature, Politics and Tradition after Stalin 4 pts. Staff
Advanced undergraduates may register if the instructor gives permission. The major writers and trends in Russian literature from the death of Stalin to the present. Emphasis on the rethinking of the role of literature in society and on formal experimentation engendered by relaxation of political controls over literature. Readings assigned in English; those with knowledge of Russian expected to read in the original as much as possible.
GU4107. Russian Literature and Culture in the New Millennium. 3pts. E. Tyerman
Survey of Russian literature and culture from the late 1970s until today. Works by Petrushevskaya, Pelevin, Tolstaya, Sorokin, Ulitskaya, Akunin, Rubinshtein, Prigov, Vasilenko and others. Literature, visual art, and film, are examined in social and political context.
GU4108. The Great Experiment: Russian Media in the Long 20th Century. 3 pts. Staff
The course will examine key events of Russian cultural history from the 1870s until today from the point of view of the concept of medium. it will begin with some theoretical definitions and proceed with a closer look at optical, audio and print media and their role in promoting mass culture, avant-garde experiments of the 1920s and 1930s, Soviet propaganda and dissident practices, and post-Soviet uses artistic and political uses of new media. Works by Mayakovsky, II'f and Petrov, Reenburg, Shklovsky. Critical readings by Marshall McLuhan, Lev Manovich, Katherine Hayles, and Boris Groys.
RUSS GU4109x: From the Rigid Rocks of Finland to the Fiery Colchis; Russia’s Self-Image in the Mirror of Music. 3pts. B. Gasparov.
This course offers a snapshot of Russian cultural history, from the age of Romanticism and realism to early twentieth-century modernism, to the Soviet time, made through the lens of most notable musical events of the epoch. While following highlights of the history of Russian music, from Glinka and the popular “romance” of Pushkin’s time to Schnittke and Gubaidullina, the course makes an attempt to build an overall picture of Russian music as integral part of Russian cultural identity with all the diversity of ideological and aesthetic trends that has contributed to it.
GU4309. Nineteenth-Century Narrative Dilemmas. 3 pts. D. Martinsen.
This course will explore narrative strategies developed by Russian authors as they created a literary tradition that would change the world. Starting with Pushkin's first completed prose work, we will explore how narrative frames, structures, genre, and authorial choices contribute to textual explorations of identity, responsibility, love, violence, and revenge. Texts covered will include: Pushkin's "Tales of Belkin," Lermontov's "Hero of Our Time," Gogol's "Diary of A Madman," "The Nose," and "The Overcoat," Dostoevsky's "The Double and Demons," Tolstoy's "War and Peace," and Leskov's "The Enchanted Wanderer." No knowledge of Russian required.
GU4451. The Cultural Cold War. 3pts. R. Borislavov.
This course will examine major developments in Soviet society after WWII through the prism of the Cold War. Organized thematically and chronologically, it will focus selectively on specific episodes of Soviet-American relations by drawing on a variety of media. Students will read, discuss and evaluate a broad range of primary and secondary sources and think critically about historical writing, the relationship bewtween art and politics, mass culture and proaganda, spy novels, memiors and travelogues. Films by Sergi Eisenstein, Andrei Tarkovsky, Stanley Kubrick, and John Frankenheimer. Prose and poetry by Andrei Voznesensky, Viktor Pelevin, Svetlana Alexievich, Vasily Aksyonov, Viktor Nekrasov and others.
GU4676. Russian Art between East and West: The Search for National Identity 3 pts. E. Valkenier
Aims to be more than a basic survey that starts with icons and ends with the early modernists. Taking an interdisciplinary approach, it aims to highlight how the various cultural transmissions interacted to produce, by the 1910s, an original national art that made an innovative contribution to world art. It discusses the development of art not only in terms of formal, aesthetic analysis, but also in the matrix of changing society, patronage system, economic life and quest for national identity. Several guest speakers will discuss the East-West problematic in their related fields-for example, in literature and ballet.
Russian Literature and Culture [RUSS]
UN3319. Masterpieces of 19th-Century Russian Literature 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: native or near-native knowledge of Russian and the instructor's permission. A close study, in the original, of representative works by Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Turgenev, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Leskov, and Chekhov.
UN3320. Masterpieces of 20th-Century Russian Literature 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: native or near native knowledge of Russian and the instructor's permission. A close study, in the original, of representative works by Bunin, Mandelstam, Tsvetaeva, Babel, Bulgakov, Nabokov, Platonov, Akhmatova, Solzhenitsyn, Brodsky and Pelevin.
UN3332. Vvedenie v russkuiu literaturu: Scary Stories. 3 pts. I. Reyfman
Two years of college Russian or the instructor's permission. For non-native speakers of Russian. The course is devoted to the reading, analysis, and discussion of a number of Russian prose fiction works from the eighteenth to twentieth century. Its purpose is to give students an opportunity to apply their language skills to literature. It will teach students to read Russian literary texts as well as to talk and write about them. Its goal is, thus, twofold: to improve the students' linguistic skills and to introduce them to Russian literature and literary history. A close study in the original of the "scary stories" in Russian literature from the late eighteenth century. Conducted in Russian.
UN3333. Vvedenie v russkuiu literaturu: Poor Liza, Poor Olga, Poor Me. 3 pts. I. Reyfman
Two years of college Russian or the instructor's permission. For non-native speakers of Russian. The course is devoted to the reading, analysis, and discussion of a number of Russian prose fiction works from the eighteenth to twentieth century. Its purpose is to give students an opportunity to apply their language skills to literature. It will teach students to read Russian literary texts as well as to talk and write about them. Its goal is, thus, twofold: to improve the students’ linguistic skills and to introduce them to Russian literature and literary history. A close study in the original of the "fallen woman" plot in Russian literature from the late eighteenth century. Conducted in Russian.
UN3344. Vvedenie v russkuiu kul'turu: Russian Culture in NYC. 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: Five semesters of classroom Russian or the equivalent and the instructor's permission. A study of Russian culture as it is represented in New York City. Conducted in Russian.
UN3345. Vvedenie v russkuiu kul'turu: Advanced Russian Through History. 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: Five semesters of classroom Russian or the equivalent and the instructor's permission. Advanced Russian through History is a language course designed to meet the needs of those foreign learners of Russian as well as heritage speakers who want to develop further their reading, speaking and writing skills and be introduced to the history of Russia.
UN3461. Pushkin 3 pts. I Reyfman
Conducted mainly in Russian. Examinations in English. A close study in the original of Pushkin's narrative, dramatic and lyrical verse.
UN3463. Tolstoy 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: three years of college Russian or instructor's permission. A close study in the original of Anna Karenina. Class discussion conducted in English.
UN3464. Dostoevsky 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: three years of college Russian and instructor's permission. A close study, in the original, of selections of representative work.
UN3595. Senior Seminar 4 pts. Staff
Required of all Barnard Slavic majors and any Columbia majors who are writing a thesis. A research and writing workshop designed to help students (1) plan and execute a major research project, and (2) communicate their ideas in a common scholarly language that crosses disciplinary boundaries. Content is determined by students’ thesis topics; also includes general sessions on how to formulate a proposal and how to generate a bibliography. Students present the fruits of their research in class discussions, culminating in a full-length seminar presentation and the submission of the written thesis.
UN3596. Supervised individual research 2-4 pts. Staff
Prerequisites: senior standing and the instructor's permission. Supervised research culminating in a critical paper.
GU4014. Introduction to Russian Poetry and Poetics. 3pts. Staff
An Introduction to Russian poetry, through the study of selected texts of major poets of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, primarily: Pushkin, Lermontov, Pavlova, Tiutchev, Blok, Mandel'shtam, Akhmatova, Mayakovsky, Prigov, and Brodsky. Classes devoted to the output of a single poet will be interspersed with classes that draw together the poems of different poets in order to show the reflexivity of the Russian poetic canon. These classes will be organized according either to types of poems or to shared themes. The course will teach the basics of verisification, poetic languages (sounds, tropes), and poetic forms. Classes in English, poetry read in Russian.
GU4200. Theater Workshop: Gogol's Revizor 3 pts. Staff
The study and staging, in the original of a Russian play (Gogol's Revizor). Concentration on exploration of character and style through language, phonetics, detailed textual analysis, and oral presentation.
GU4331. Chteniia po russkoi literature: Turgenev. 3pts. C.Popkin. The course is devoted to reading shorter works by Nikolai Gogol. The syllabus includes selection from his collections "Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka" and "Mirgorod," all of his Petersburg Tales, and "The Inspector General." Classes are conducted entirely in Russian.
GU4332. Chteniia po russkoi literature: Gogol. 3pts. I Reyfman.
The course is devoted to reading the works by Nikolai Gogol.
GU4338. Chteniia po russkoi literature: Voina i mir. 3 pts. I. Reyfman.
The course is devoted to reading and discussing of Tolstoy's masterpiece. Classes are conducted entirely in Russian.
GU4339. Chteniia po russkoi literature: Pushkin. 3pts. Staff
A survey of Alexander Pushkin's poetry and prose in the original. Emphasis on the emergence of a new figure of the poet in Russia in the 1820s - 1830s. Linguistic analysis of poetic texts (vocabulary, metrics, versification) will be combined with the study of Russian history and culture as relected in Pushkin's writing.
GU4344. Chteniia po russkoi kul'ture: Advanced Russian Through History: 19 Century to the Present. 3pts. Staff. A language course designed to meet the needs of those non-heritage and heritage learners of Russian who want to develop further their reading, speaking and writing skills and to be introduced to the history of Russia. Prerequisite: completion of UN3101-UN3102 or placement test
GU4345. Chteniia po russkoi kul'ture: Advanced Russian Through History: 9 – 18 Centuries. 3pts. Staff. A language course designed to meet the needs of those non-heritage and heritage learners who want to further develop their reading, speaking, and writing skills and be introduced to the history of Russia. Prerequisite: completion of UN3101-UN3102 or placement test
GU4346. Chteniia po russkoi kul'ture: Russian Folklore and the Folkloric Tradition. 3 pts. Staff.
The purpose of this course is to acquaint structure with traditional folk beliefs that are part of Russian life today. Readings will include descriptions of character ritual folk beliefs as well as narratives about personal experiences concerning supersition, sorcery and the supernatural. Also included will be folktales that most Russian know and contemporary Russian folk narratives.
GU4347. Chteniia po russkoi kul'ture: Contemporary Social Science. 3 pts. A. Smyslova.
Prerequisite: five semesters of college level Russian and participation in a study abroad program in a Russian speaking country and instructor's permission. The course is designed to meet the needs of advanced undergraduate and graduate students across several fields - the natural sciences, social sciences, humanities, fine arts, business, law and others - who wish to focus on acquisition of high proficiency reading skills that will allow them to conduct research using written Russian-language academic sources.
GU4348. Chteniia po ruskkoi kul'ture: Advanced Russian Through the Media. 3 pts. I. Kun.
Prerequisite: Three Years of college Russian or the equivalent. This course is designed to meet the needs of advanced students of Russian across several fields - the humanities, social sciences, law, arts, and others - who want to further develop their speech, comprehension, reading, and writing and be introduced to the contemporary Russian media. This addition to our series of courses in Advanced Russian through cultural content provides training for research and professional work in Russian.
GU4349. Chteniia po russkoi kul'ture: Advanced Russian Through Song. 3 pts. I. Kun.
This is a concept based course designed to develop students' ability to understand fluent Russian speech and express their opinions on various social and cultural topics in both oral and written form.
GU4350 Language, Culture, Society in Russia Today. Prerequisite: Completion of UN3102 or placement test.
GU4354. Chteniia po russkoi literature: A Hero of Our Time and Other Superfluous People. 3 pts. N. Kun.
This course focuses on the study and analysis of Mikhail Lermontov's, "A Her of Our Time" - one of the most influential Russian novels of the 19th century - in its broader social, artistic, and intellectual context. Students will trace the development of the so-called "superfluous man," a strikingly ubiquitous character type whose recurrent appearance throughout the broader history of Russian literature makes him one of the most recognizable national characters.
W4452. Russian Modernism Through the Lens of Music. 3pts. B. Gasparov.
A historical survey of trends of Russian musical modernism in the context of Russian cultural history of the first half of the twentieth century. Works by Chaikovsky, Rimsky-Korsakov, Scriabin, Stravinsky, Prokofiev, Mosolov, Shostakovich and Schnittke will be considered alongside notable events of contemporary literature, visual art, and aesthetic theory. Knowledge of Russian is not required.
Czech Language and Literature [CZCH]
UN1101- UN1102. Elementary Czech, I and II 4 pts. Staff
Essentials of the spoken and written language. Prepares students to read texts of moderate difficulty by the end of the first year.
UN2101- UN2102. Intermediate Czech, I and II 4 pts. C. Harwood
Prerequisite: CZCH UN1102 or the equivalent. Rapid review of grammar. Readings in contemporary fiction and nonfiction, depending upon the interests of individual students.
UN4333 - UN4334. Readings in Czech Literature, I and II. 3 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: CZCH UN2102 or the instructor's permission. Extensive readings in Czech literature in the original, with emphasis depending upon the needs of individual students.
UN3998. Supervised individual research 2-4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: departmental permission.
Comparative Literature-Czech [CLCZ]
GU4020. Czech Culture Before Czechoslovakia. 3 pts.
Prerequisites: Sophmore standing or instructor's permission. An interpretive cultural history of the Czechs from earliest times to the founding of the first Czechoslovak republic in 1918. Emphasis on the origins, decline, and resurgence of Czech national identity as reflected in the visual arts, architecture, music, historiography, and especially the literature of the Czechs.
GU4030. Postwar Czech Literature 3 pts. Staff
A survey of postwar Czech fiction and drama. Knowledge of Czech not necessary. Parallel reading list available in translation and in the original.
GU4035. The Writers of Prague 3 pts. Staff
A survey of the Czech, German, and German-Jewish literary cultures of Prague from 1910 to 1920. Special attention to Hašek, Čapek, Kafka, Werfel, and Rilke. Parallel reading lists available in English and in the original.
GU4038. Prague Spring of '68 in Film and Literature 3 pts. Staff
Explores the unique period in Czech film and literature during the '60s that emerged as a reaction to the imposed socialist realism. The new generation of writers (Kundera, Skvorecky, Havel, Hrabal) in turn had an influence on young emerging filmmakers, all of whom were a part of the Czech new wave.
Comparative Literature-Russian [CLRS]
UN3224. Nabokov. 3 pts.
This course examines the writing (including major novels, short stories, essays and memoirs) of the Russian-American author Vladimir Nobokov. Special attention to literary politics and gamesmanship and the author's unique place within both the Russin and Anglo-American literary traditions. Knowledge of Russian not required.
UN3501. How To Tell A War Story: Narratives About War from Leo Tolstoy to the Present. 3pts. L. Knapp.
We will read a range of works about war, from Tolstoy’s war stories to contemporary American war fiction, reporting, memoirs, and essays. Each author attempts to capture and convey the truth about war, subject matter that challenges language, narrative, memory, and understanding. What means do the authors use to tell their war stories? What truths do they reveal about war, death, love, responsibility, and the human condition? Authors include: Leo Tolstoy, William Russell, Ambrose Pierce, Stephen Crane, Henri Barbusse, Isaac Babel, Erich Maria Remarque, Virginia Woolf, Ernest Hemingway, Philip Caputo, Tim O’Brien, Kevin Powers, Siobhan Fallon, Phil Klay, and others. (All readings in English.)
GU4011. Dostoevsky, Tolstoy, and the English Novel. 3 pts. L. Knapp.
A close reading of works by Dostoevsky (Netochka Nezvanova; The Idiot; "A Gentle Creature") and Tolstoy (Childhood, Boyhood, Youth; "Family Happiness"; Anna Karenina; "The Kreutzer Sonata") in conjunction with related English novels (Bronte's Jane Eyre, Eliot's Middlemarch, Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway). No knowledge of Russian is required.
GU4016. Petersburg Texts. 3 pts. D. Martinsen.
This course will explore the concept of the Petersburg Text, its origins, development, and continuations. We will read classic, nineteenth-centurt Petersburg texts by Pushin ("The Bronze Horseman," "The Queen of Spades"), Gogol (the Petersburg tales), and Dostoevsky ("White Nights," The Double, Crime and Punishment) Leskov's parody of the tradition ("Apparation at the Engineer's Castle"), Bely's Petersburg, Daniil Kharms' 'old women" stories, Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita, and some contemporary Petersburg noir stories. No knowledge of Russian required.
GU4022. Russia & Asia: Orientalism, Eurasianism, Internationalism. 3 pts. E. Tyerman.
This course explores the formation of Russian national and imperial identity through ideologies of geography, focusing on a series of historical engagements with the concept of "Asia." How has the Mongol conquest shaped a sense of Russian identity as something destinct from Europe? How has Russian culture participated in Orientalist portrayals of conquered Asian lands, while simultaneously being Orientalized by Europe and, indeed, Orientalizing itself? How do concepts of Eurasianism and socialist internationalism, both arising in the ealry 20th century, seek to redraw the geography of Russia's relations with East and West? We will explore these questions through a range of materials, including: literary texts by Russian and non-Russian writers (Pushkin, Lermontov, Tolstoy, Solovyov, Bely, Blok, Pilnyak, Khlebnikov, Planotov, Xiao Hong, Kurban Said, Aitimatov, Iskander, Bordsky); films (Eisenstein, Tarkovsky, Kalatozov, Paradjanov, Mikhalkov); music and dance (the Ballets Russes); visual art (Vereshchagin, Roerich); and theoretical and secondary readings by Chaadaev, Said, Bassin, Trubetskoy, Leontievm, Lenin, and others.
GU4032. Emancipation of the Self in (Early 20th Century) Russia and the European Modern. 3pts. J. Wermuth-Atkinson.
A survey of the conceptual commonalities in 20th century Russian and Western European literature, art, architecture, theater, and music. Emphasis will be on the views of the Self, the relationship between matter and psyche, and reality and appearance, discussed in the context of Russian Symbolism, analytical psychology, and the Modern.
GU4038. Dostoevsky in the 1870s: Demons, Diary of a Writer, Adolescent, and Dickens. 3pts. L. Knapp.
A study of Dostoevsky and Dickens as two writers whose engagement in the here and now was vital to their work and to their practice of the novel. Reading from Dostoevsky cluster in the 1870s and include two novels, Demons (1872) and Adolescent (1876), and selections from his Diary of a Writer. Readings from Dickens span his career and include, in addition to David Copperfield (1850), sketched and later essays.
GU4155. History of Russian & Soviet Film. 3 pts. E. Tyerman
This course surveys developments in Russian film history and style from the prerevolutionary beginnings of cinema through the Soviet and post-Soviet experience. We will be studying both the aesthetic qualities of the films and their historical and cultural contexts. Students will be exposed to a wide range of visual media, including experimental films of the 1920s, films on Russia's experience of World War II, Soviet classics, late Soviet and contemporary Russian films. Readings will include theoretical articles and selections from Russian film history and criticism. All readings are in English and the films will be screened with English subtitles.
GU4190. Race, Ethnicity, and Narrative, in the Russian/Soviet Empire 3 pts. Staff
his course examines the literary construction of ethnic and cultural identity in texts drawn from the literatures of ethnic minorities and non-Slavic nationalities that coexist within the Russian and Soviet imperial space, with attention to the historical and political context in which literary discourses surrounding racial, ethnic, and cultural particularity develop. Organized around three major regions -- the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Russian Far East --readings include canonical "classics" by Aitmatov, Iskander, and Rytkheu as well as less-known texts, both "official" and censored.Global Core.
Comparative Literature-Slavic [CLSL]
GU4004. Introduction to Twentieth-Century Central Europena Fiction. 3 pts. I. Sanders.
This course introduces stuents to the works of literature that offer a unique perspective on the temptestuous twentieth century, if only because these works for the most part were written in "minor" languages (Czech, Polish, Hungarian, Serbian), in countries long considered part of the European backwaters, whose people were not makers but victims of history. Yet the authors of many of these works are today ranked among the masters of modern literature. Often hailing from highly strasfied, conservative societies, many Eastern and Central Europena writers became daring literary innovators and experimenters. To the present day, writers from this "other" Europe try to escape history, official cultures, politics, and end up redefining them for their readers. We will be dealing with a disparate body of literature, varied both in form and content. But we will try to pinpoint subtle similarities, in tone and sensibility, and focus, too, on the more apparent preoccupation with certain themes that may be called characteristically Central European.
GU4020 Modern Hungarian Prose in Translation: Exposing Naked Reality 3 pts. I. Sanders
This course introduces students to representative examples of an essentially robust, reality-bound, socially aware literature. In modern Hungarian prose fiction, the tradition of nineteenth-century "anecdotal realism" remained strong and was further enlivened by various forms of naturalism. Even turn-of-the century and early twentieth-century modernist fiction is characterized by strong narrative focus, psychological realism, and an emphasis on social conditions and local color. During the tumultuous decades of the century, social, political, national issues preoccupied even aesthetics-conscious experimenters and ivory-tower dwellers. Among the topics discussed will be "populist" and "urban" literature in the interwar years, post-1945 reality in fiction, literary memoirs and reportage, as well as late-century minimalist and postmodern trends.
GU4100. Central Europe and the Orient in the Works of Yugoslav Writers. 3pts. Staff
The course addresses the confrontation between East and West in the works of Vla Desnica, Miroslav Krleza, Mesa Semilovic, and Ivo Andric. Discussion will target problems inherent in shaping national and individual identity, as well as the trauma caused by occupation and colonization among the South Slavs.
GU4120 The Polish Short Story in Comparative Context. 3pts. A. Frajlich-Zajac
The course examines the beginnings of the Polish short story in the 19th Century and its development through the late 20th century, including exemplary works of major Polish writers of each period. It is also a consideration of the short story form--its generic features, its theoretical premises, and the way these respond to the stylistic and philosophical imperatives of successive periods.
GU4995 Central European Jewish Literature: Assimilation and Its Discontents. 3pts. I. Sanders
Examines prose and poetry by writers generally less accessible to the American student written in the major Central European languages: German, Hungarian, Czech and Polish. The problematics of assimilation, the search for identity, political commitment and disillusionment are major themes, along with the defining experienceof the century: the Holocaust; but becasue these writers are often more removed from their Jewishness, their perspective on these events and issues may be different. The influence of Franz Kafka on Central European writers, the post-Communist Jewish revival, and defining the Jewish voice in an otherwise disparate body of works.
Slavic and General Linguistics [SLLN, CLLN, LING]
SLLN GU4005. Introduction to Old Church Slavonic. 3 pts. A. Timberlake, V. Izmirlieva
An abridged course in Old Church Slavonic phonology and morphology, with some attention to the role of Church Slavonic in shaping the lexicon of modern Russia.
LING UN3101. Introduction to Linguistics. 3 pts. B. Gasparov, A. Timberlake.
Parameters of the structure of language: phonology, grammar, semantics, concepts and methods of theoretical linguistics and their role in the study of cognitive, communicative and social functions of language.
LING GU4108. Language History. 3 pts. Staff.
The nature and mechanisms of change in language, including the topics of comparative reconstruction, analogy, semantic change, language in space and time, prehistory and migration.
LING GU4120. Language Documentation and Field Methods. 3 pts. T. O'Neill.
With the predicted loss of up to 90% of the world's languages within this century, it is becoming increasingly urgent that more linguists take an active role in documenting and conserving endangered languages. In this course, the fundamental skills and technology required for this will be taught as we work with a native speaker to document and describe their endangered language.
LING GU4170. Language and Symbol: The Semiotics of Speech, Literature & Culture. 3 pts. B. Gasparov
Reading and discussing scholarly literature on various aspects of meaning, structure, and functioning of signs in language, art and society. All the reading for the course is drawn from original scholarly literature, some of it of highly specialized nature. At some points (for instance, while discussing dimensions of the linguistic signs, or parameters of structural portics), theoretical reading will be supplemented by brief practical assignments.
LING GU4171. Languages of Africa. 3 pts. J. McWhorter
The African continent is home not to simply a collection of similar "African dialects," but to at least 1000 distinct languages that belong to five language families, none of them any more closely related than English and its relatives are to Japanese. This includes the Semitic languages that emerged in the Middle East and are now most commonly associated with Arabic and Hebrew, the famous "click" languages of Southern Africa whose origins are still shrouded by mystery, and in the case of Malagasy on Madagascar, the Austronesian family of Southeast Asia and Oceania - the language traces to speakers who travelled over the ocean from Borneo to Africa. This course will examine languages in all of these families, with a focus on how they demonstrate a wide array of linguistic processes and how they interact with social history, anthropology, and geography.
LING GU4190 Discourse and Pragmatics. 3pts. A. Timberlake
Prerequisites: LING UN3101. How discourse works, how language is used: oral vs. written modes of language, the structure of discourse, speech acts and speech genres, the expression of power, authenticity, and solidarity in discourse, dialogicity, pragmatics, mimesis.
LING GU4202 Cognitive Linguistics. 3 pts. A. Timberlake
Prerequisites: LING UN3101, previously or concurrently reading and discussion of scholarly literature on the cognitive approach to language, including: usuage-oriented approaches to language, frame semantics, construction grammar, theories of conceptual metaphor and mental spaces; alongside of experimental research on language acquisition, langugae memory, prototypical and analogous thinking, and the role of visual imagery in language processing.
LING GU4204 Linguistic Theory. 3 pts. B. Gasparov.
In-depth treatment of the structure and use of language (especially syntax, semantics and discourse), with attention to theoretical issues. Discussion of scholarly literature representing various fields of linguistics.
LING GU4376 Phonetics and Phonology. 3 pts. A. Timberlake
Prerequisites: LING UN3101. An investigation of the sounds of human language, from the perspective of phonetics (articulation and acoustics, including computer aided acoustic analysis) and phonology (the distribution and function of sounds in individual languages).
LING GU4800 Language and Society. 3 pts. Staff
How language structure and usage varies according to societal factors such as social history and socioeconomic factors, illustrated with study modules on language contact, language standardization and literacy, quantitative sociolinguistic theory, and history, present and future of language usage in the former Soviet Union.
LING GU4903. Semantics and Generative Transformational Syntax. 3 pts. Staff.
Contemporary approaches to the relation between linguistic meaning and form, with special emphasis on work within the Chomskian tradition. Transformational and phrase structure grammar, x-bar syntax, government and binding, lexical decomposition, logical form, minimalist theory.
Polish Language and Literature [POLI]
UN1101-UN1102. Elementary Polish, I and II 4 pts. C. Caes
Essentials of the spoken and written language. Prepares students to read texts of moderate difficulty by the end of the first year.
UN2101-UN2102. Intermediate Polish, I and II 4 pts. C. Caes
Prerequisite: POLI W1102 or the equivalent. Rapid review of grammar; readings in contemporary nonfiction or fiction, depending on the interests of individual students.
GU4101-GU4102. Advanced Polish, I and II 4 pts. C. Caes
Prerequisite: POLI W2102 or the equivalent. Extensive readings from 19th- and 20th-century texts in the original. Both fiction and nonfiction, with emphasis depending on the interests and needs of individual students.
UN3998. Supervised Individual Research 2-4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: departmental permission.
Comparative Literature - Polish [CLPL]
GU4040. Mickiewicz 3 pts. C. Caes
Analyzing the major works of Adam Mickiewicz. Students with sufficient knowledge of Polish are required to do the readings in the original. Parallel reading list for readers and non-readers of Polish.
GU4042. Bestsellers of Polish Literature 3 pts. C. Caes
Reading knowledge of Polish desirable but not required. Parallel reading lists are available in the original and in translation. A study of the 20th-century Polish novel during its most invigorated, innovative inter-war period. A close study of the major works of Kuncewiczowa, Choromanski, Wittlin, Unilowski, Kurek, Iwaszkiewicz, Gombrowicz and Shulz. The development of the Polish novel will be examined against the background of new trends in European literature, with emphasis on the usage of various narrative devices.
GU4120. The Polish Short Story: in Comparative Text 3 pts. C. Caes
This course will discuss what the short story is, when it appeared in the history of literature, and what makes it a unique genre. In the introductory part we will discuss in brief the most prominent and best known short stories of Boccaccio's "Decameron," related literature, and short stories by other authors who belong to the classical canon. We will distinguish three large categories: the short story based plot, the short story of character, and the descriptive short story. Assessment of the classical Polish short story and its canon.
GU4300. Unbound and Post Dependent: The Polish Novel After 1989 3 pts. C. Caes
This seminar is designed to offer an overview of Post-1989 Polish prose. The literary output of what is now called post-dependent literature demonstrates how political transformations influenced social and intellectual movements and transformed the narrative genre itself. The aesthetic and formal developments in Polish prose will be explored as a manifestation of a complex phenomenon bringing the reassesment of national myths, and cultural aspirations. Works by Dorota Maslowska, Andrzej Stasiuk, Pawel Huelle, Olga Tokarczuk, Magdalena Tulli and others will be read and discussed. Knowledge of Polish not required.
GU4301. Survey of Polish Literature & Culture. 3pts. C. Caes
This course introduces and explores key works, traditions, and tendencies in Polish literature and culture from the Middle Ages to the present. Focusing in particular on monuments of Polish literature, the course embeds them in historical context and places them in dialog with important ideas and trends in both Polish and European culture of their time. The aim is to engender and establish an understanding of Poland's position on the literary and cultural map of Europe. In addition to literature, works of history, political science, film and the performing arts will be drawn on for course lecture and discussion. No prerequisites. Readings in English.
Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian Language and Literature [BCRS]
UN1101-UN1102. Elementary Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, I and II 4 pts. A. Boskovic
Essentials of the spoken and written language. Prepares students to read texts of moderate difficulty by the end of the first year.
UN2101-UN2102. Intermediate Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, I and II. 3 pts. A. Boskovic
Prerequisites: BCRS UN1102 or equivalent. Readings in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian literature in the orginal, with emphasis depending upon the needs of individual students.
UN3998. Supervised individual research 2-4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: departmental permission.
GU4331-GU4332 Advanced Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian, I and II. 3 pts. A. Boskovic
Prerequisites: BCRS 2102. Further develops skills in speaking, reading, and writing, using essays, short stories, films, and fragments of larger works. Reinforces basic grammar and introduces more complete structures.
GU4100. Central Europe and the Orient in the Works of Yugoslav Writers. 3 pts. Staff
Analyzing works of Vladan Desnica, Miroslav Krleža, Ivo Andric and Meša Selimovic. Parallel reading lists will be available in English and Serbo-Croatian
Ukrainian Language and Literature [UKRN]
UN1101-UN1102. Elementary Ukrainian, I and II 4 pts. Y. Shevchuk
Essentials of grammar, basic oral expression, with emphasis on drills, reading, writing, and listening comprehension. Reading of simple texts; discussion of readings in Ukrainian. Conducted increasingly in Ukrainian.
UN2101-UN2102. Intermediate Ukrainian, I and II 3 pts. Y. Shevchuk
Prerequisite: UKRN UN1102 or the equivalent. Intensive rapid review of grammar, with some emphasis on conversational skills. Strong emphasis on reading/translating skills using selections from contemporary Ukrainian periodicals.
UN3998. Supervised individual research 4 pts. Staff
Prerequisite: departmental permission.
GU4001 - GR4002. Advanced Ukrainian, I and II. Y. Shevchuk
Prerequisites: UKRN UN2102 or the equivalent. The course is for students who wish to develop their mastery of Ukrainian. Further study of grammar includes patterns of word formation, participles, gerunds, declension of numerals, and a more in-depth study of diffcult subjects, such as verbal aspects and verbs of motion. The material is drawn from classical and contemporary Ukrainian literature, press, electronic media, and film. Taught almost exclusively in Ukrainian.
GU4033. Early Modernism in Ukrainian Literature 3 pts. M. Andryczyk.
The course focuses on the rise of modernism in Ukrainian literature in the late 19th century and early 20th century, a period marked by a vigorous, often biting polemic between the populist Ukrainian literary establishment and young Ukrainian writers who were inspired by their European counterparts. Students will read prose, poetry, and drama written by Ivan Franko, the writers of the Moloda Musa, Olha Kobylianska, Lesia Ukrainka, and Volodymyr Vynnychenko among others. The course will trace the introduction of urban motifs and settings, as well as decadence, into Ukrainian literature and analyze the conflict that ensued among Ukrainian intellectuals as they forged the identity of the Ukrainian people. The course will be supplemented by audio and visual materials reflecting this period in Ukrainian culture. Entirely in English with a parallel reading list for those who read Ukrainian.
GU4037. The Aura of Soviet Ukrainian Modernism. 3 pts. M. Andryczyk.
This course studies the renaissance in Ukrainian culture of the 1920s - a period of revolution, experimentation, vibrant expression and polemics. Focusing on the most important developments in literature, as well as on the intellectual debates they inspired, the course will also examine the major achievements in Ukrainian theater, visual art and film as integral components of the cultural spirit that defined the era. Additionally, the course also looks at the subsequent implementation of socialist realism and its impact on Ukrainian culture and on the cultural leaders of the renaissance. The course treats one of the most important periods of Ukrainian culture and examines its lasting impact on today's Ukraine. This period produced several world-renowned cultural figures, whose connections with 1920s Ukraine have only recently begun to be discussed. The course will be complemented by film screenings, presentations of visual art and rare publications from this period. Entirely in English with a parallel reading list for those who read Ukrainian.
GU4054. Creating Identity in Contemporary Ukrainian Culture. 3 pts. M. Andryczyk.
This course presents and examines post-Soviet Ukrainian culture. Students will learn about the significant achievements, names, events, scandals and polemics in contemporary Ukrainian culture and will see how they have contributed to Ukraine’s post-Soviet identity. Centered on the most important successes in literature, the course will also explore the key developments in music and visual art in this period. The course will look at what images have come to represent Ukraine and how they were created. By also studying Ukrainian culture with regards to its relationship with Ukraine’s changing political life, students will obtain a good understanding of the dynamics of today’s Ukraine and the development of Ukrainians as a nation in the 21st century. The course will be complemented by audio and video presentations and, through the Harriman Institute’s on-going Contemporary Ukrainian Literature Series, will offer students the unique opportunity to meet several leading Ukrainian writers in-person. Entirely in English with a parallel reading list for those who read Ukrainian.
Slavic Literature and Culture [SLLT]
GU4003. Central European Drama In The Twentieth Century 3 pts. I. Sanders
Focus will be on the often deceptive modernity of modern Central and East European theater and its reflection of the forces that shaped modern European society. It will be argued that the abstract, experimental drama of the twentieth-century avant-garde tradition seems less vital at the century's end than the mixed forms of Central and East European dramatists. Emphasis on the achievements of Central and East European theater will also provide a postmodern perspective on the various stylistic"isms" of the early twentieth century.
GU4015y. Ideology, History, Identity: South Slavic Writers from Modernism to Postmodernism and Beyond. 3 pts. Staff
Explores the issue of Yugoslav identity through the representative texts of major Serbian writers, such as Milos Crnjanski, Ivo Andric, Danilo Kis, Milorad Pavic, and Borislav Pekic.
Slavic Cultures [SLCL]
UN3001. Slavic Cultures. 3 pts. A. Timberlake
The history of Slavic peoples - Russians, Czechs, Poles, Serbs, Croats, Ukrainians, Bulgarians - is rife with transformations, some voluntary, some imposed. Against the background of a schematic external history, this course examines how Slavic peoples have responded to and have represented these transformations in various modes: historical writing, hagiography, polemics, drama, and fiction, folk poetry, music, visual art, and film. Activity ranges over lecture (for historical background) and discussion (of primary courses).
UN3100. Folklore Past and Present: From Slavic Vampires to Urban Legends. 3 pts. J. Merrill. What is folklore? How is it collected and framed as such? What artistic and political purposes does it serve? Focus will be on traditional, oral Slavic folk genres (riddles, spells, fairy tales, epics, folksongs), but also contemporary American folklore (slang, legends, dance, children’s games). Students will learn to recognize patterns and interpret meanings of traditional folkloric genres, and will acquire tools and techniques necessary for collecting, documenting and interpreting contemporary folklore.
GU4002 Romanian Culture, Identity & Complexes. 3pts. M. Momescu.
This course addresses the main problems that contribute to the making of Romanian identity, as fragmented or as controversial as it may seem to those who study it. The aim is to become familiar with the deepest patterns of Romanian identity, as we encounter it today, either in history, political studies, fieldwork in sociology or, simply, when we interact with Romanians. By using readings and presentations produced by Romanian specialists, we aim to be able to see the culture with an "insider's eye", as much as we can. This perspective will enable us to develop mechanisms of understanding the Romanian culture and mentality independently, at a more profound level and to reason upon them.
GU4002. (Dis)integration in Frames: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Issues in Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav Cinemas. 3 pts A. Boskovic
This course investigates the complex relationship between aesthetics and ideology in Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav cinema. Specifically, it examines the variety of ways in which race, ethnicity, gender inequality, and national identity are approached, constructed, promoted, or contested and critically dissected in film texts from the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its succesor states (Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia, FYR Macedonia). The course has four thematic units and is organized chronologically.
GU4050. The Hungarian New Wave: Cinema in Kadarist Hungary. 3 pts. I. Sanders.
Hungarian cinema, like film-making in Czechoslavakia, underwent a renaissance in the 1960's, but the HUngarian new wave continued to flourish in the 70's and film remained one of the most important art forms well into the 80's. This course examines the cultural, social and political context of representative Hungarian films of the Kadarist period, with special emphasis on the work of such internationally known filmmakers as Miklos Jancso, Karoly Makk, Marta Meszaros, and Istvan Szabo. In addition to a close analysis of individual films, discussion topics will include the "newness" of the new wave in both form and content (innovations in film language, cinematic impressionism, allegoric-parabolic forms, auteurism, etc.), the influence of Italian, French, German and American cinema, the relationship between film and literature, the role of film in the cultures of Communist Eastern Europe, the state of contemporary Hungarian cinema. The viewing of the films will be augmented by readings on Hungarian cinema, as well as of relevent Hungarian literary works.
GU4075. Soviet and Post-Soviet, Colonial and Post Colonial Film. 3pts. Y. Shevchuk.
The course will discuss how filmmaking has been used as an instrument of power and imperial domination in the Soviet Union as well as on post-Soviet space since 1991. A body of selected films by Soviet and post-Soviet directors which exemplify the function of filmmaking as a tool of appropriation of the colonized, their cultural and political subordination by the Soviet center will be examined in terms of postcolonial theories. The course will focus both on Russian cinema and often overlooked work of Ukrainian, Georgian, Belarusian, Armenian, etc. national film schools and how they participated in the communist project of fostering a «new historic community of the Soviet people» as well as resisted it by generating, in hidden and, since 1991, overt and increasingly assertive ways their own counter-narratives. Close attention will be paid to the new Russian film as it re-invents itself within the post-Soviet imperial momentum projected on the former Soviet colonies.
GU4155. History of Russian & Soviet Film 3 pts. R. Borislavov
History of Russian & Soviet Cinema. 3 pts. This course surveys developments in Russian film history and style from the prerevolutionary beginnings of cinema through the Soviet and post-Soviet experience. We will be studying both the aesthetic qualities of the films and their historical and cultural contexts. Students will be exposed to a wide range of visual media, including experimental films of the 1920s, films on Russia's experience of World War II, Soviet classics, late Soviet and contemporary Russian films. Readings will include theoretical articles and selections from Russian film history and criticism. All readings are in English and the films will be screened with English subtitles.
UN3224. Cities and Civilizations: An Introduction to Eurasian Studies. 3 pts. Staff
An introduction to the study of the region formerly occupied by the Russian and Soviet Empires focusing on the cities as the space of self-definition, encounter, and tension among constituent peoples. Focus on incorporating and placing in dialogue diverse disciplinary approaches to the study of the city through reading and analysis of historical, literary, and theoretical texts as well as film, music, painting and architecture.
GU4223. Personality & Society in 19th Century Russian Thought. 3pts R. Wortman
A seminar reviewing some of the major works of Russian thought, literature, and memoir literature that trace the emergence of intelligentsia ideologies of the 19th- and 20th-century Russia. Focuses on discussion of specific texts and traces the adoption and influence of certain western doctrines in Russia, such as idealism, positivism, utopian socialism, Marxism, and various 20th-century currents of thought.
GU4280. Religion in Russia: Culture, History, Institutions. 3 pts. V. Izmirlieva
This course will explore how Orthodox Christianity - whether priviledged or persecuted - came to dominate the Russian religious scene, while also addressing the share of Islam, Judaism, Catholicism, and other religious traditions in shaping Russian institutions, discourses, and lived experiences.